Classified Recall Vocabulary in Marathi | Exotic India Art (2023)


One of the major tasks of CIIL which is entrusted with the responsibility ofdeveloping Indian languages through research, training and material production is toimprove the teaching of Indian Languages in schools both as first and second language.This responsibility is executed also by the teaching of Indian languages as secondlanguage, through seven Regional Language Centers of the Institute.

Basic research plays an important role in developing and improving instructionalmaterials, teaching methods and techniques, teacher training and the use of media. Thisbasic research, which forms part of the activities of the Institute, has led to the developmentof innovative techniques for instruction and material production.

It is a well known fact that the Indian Languages lack empirical studies onvocabulary. Teaching of vocabulary is an integral part of teaching a language in anysituation. Usually language courses present the use of vocabulary in context. There is aneed to provide certain supplementary materials including lists of lexical items, glossaries,vocabularies and dictionaries in the target language. With these, preparation ofinstructional materials and teaching / learning the languages will be more meaningful.

The Institute tries to fill in these gaps through its publications such as Hindi-Regional Languages common vocabulary series, Basic vocabulary lists, Proficiency testseries, Simplification of vocabulary of primary school textbooks, Pictorial glossaries, Biand tri lingual dictionaries, verb dictionaries, etc. The present series of SemanticallyClassified Recall Vocabulary is an addition to the study of vocabulary.

This series of Recall vocabulary gives a list of words recalled by the authors ofthese series of publications which form part of the active vocabulary of a native speakerand hence it is expected that the users of this vocabulary list would find it useful toconstruct their own active vocabulary stock and the material producers would find it aboon while preparing materials for teaching/learning Marathi as second/foreign language.It must also be remembered here that studies on vocabulary also show that an adult learnerrecalls/associates words which are predominantly of the same parts of speech ata time. It isalso hoped that when the Recall Vocabularies in other Indian Languages are published, onecould make a comparison of them to find out what is common between the lists. This wouldestablish a common cultural and cognitive base for the speakers of Indian languages.

A Semantically Classified Recall Vocabulary in Marathi is a guide tosome ways in which vocabulary development is facilitated. It is hoped that the learners ofMarathi will find this book useful.


The acquisition of vocabulary in any language both by the native and non-nativespeakers continues all through their life span. Not all the vocabulary items are acquiredwith the same rate nor are they retained with the same strength. The vocabulary items enterin the language of an individual at their own pace and occupy their place in his/hervocabulary stock. The total vocabulary of a living language also keeps on changing eitherby addition of new words or new meanings to the existing words or by deletion of certainwords or meanings of the words. Also the vocabulary composition of one language variesfrom that of another language. The vocabulary availability in an individual speakerdepends upon his/her experience and exposure to the language, educational background,socioeconomic group to which he/she belongs, the dialect he/she speaks, I.Q., sex, etc. Thequantum and range of the vocabulary acquired in a language and the quality of their use arecertainly a mark of the level of attainments in that language.

The importance of learning/teaching vocabulary in learning/teaching a languagecannot be exaggerated. Good vocabulary and good reading go hand in hand. It is difficult tocomprehend fully a sentence unless one knows the meaning(s) of words in that sentence.As the learners advance in concept development their vocabulary development must alsocorrespondingly advance because the two are interrelated. Also possessing a good numberof vocabulary items is especially important for the development of all the four skills oflanguage, namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing. Learners who do not havecompetence in using vocabulary will usually lack competence In the production skills also.We should also recognize the fact that generally learners' listening and reading vocabulary-passive vocabulary- is larger than their speaking and wniting vocabulary-activevocabulary.

In this context, a list of Semantically Classified Vocabulary will be of great interestand use to the learners. This semantically classified vocabulary in Marathi is presentedhere as an aid to further develop the vocabulary potential of the learners of Marathi as asecond/foreign language. This book is based on an assumption that words are not learntmechanically as little pockets of meaning, but are learnt also through associations.

The Recall Process

This compilation Classified Recall Vocabulary in Marathi is prepared by a nativespeaker of Marathi. As far as recalling of the vocabulary is concerned, the process ofrecalling was spread over a period of six weeks. The words were recalled under different>road semantic groups such as man, plants, animals - both domestic and wild, birds,2ducation and educational institutions, food, house and house parts. Within each broadgroup several sub-groups were identified thus arriving at 43 semantic subgroups for thecategory of nouns and 7 grammatical types for the rest. It may be noted here that therecalling process might have been affected by variables such as educational qualification,sex and experience in a particular field.

This book consists of two parts. Part I contains 3108 nouns, Part II contains 775words such as adjectives, adverbs, verbs, pronouns, interrogative words and otherfunction words such as post positions, interyections. Most of the words listed under asubgroup were recalled at one sitting. However, in some cases, while recalling the wordsbelonging to a particular semantic subgroup, words of other groups also came to berecalled naturally due to some association or the other. These words were then and thererecorded and later assigned to their appropriate groups. The semantic subgroups in thisvocabulary list are so chosen as to include vocabulary items relating to familiar objectsand day-to-day experiences. No dictionary or written record was used for collecting thematerials.

In the recall of the vocabulary items, there was no specific attempt made to recall orrestrict the words as belonging to spoken language or written language or those belongingto a particular dialect or register. All words that came to be recalled in the given particularcontext were recorded. As a result, this Recall Vocabulary reveals certain characteristicfeatures as detailed in the next section.

Characteristics of Vocabulary Recalled

  1. Here are words from both spoken and written Marathi ranging from the very informal tothe formal in both the planes.
  2. Another feature of the result of the recall was that the vocabulary items recalled, indeed,reflect all the ongoing trends in lexical choice, coinage and use. Words of current usage,words found in newspaper are all found recalled. Technical terms that are not fully invogue but are sought to be replaced are also recalled, thus indicating that sometimes thetrends in the language are of a conflicting nature.
  3. The list also consists of many words that are synonymous and found within the samesemantic category.
  4. Some of the words were recalled in more than one category, reflecting the nature, roleand function of such recalled items under various semantic categories.
  5. Yet another feature of the recalled items is the influence of cultural items under severalsemantic categories. Many words reflecting the cultural items have been recalled. Whilemany of these cultural-specific words are in actual use, several others reflect only theinfrequent and rare remnants.
  6. Many words of English and Sanskrit origin have also been recalled as falling withinMarathi Vocabulary.

All the above characteristics reflect the reality of language use in present dayMarathi and thus send a greater credence to the recalling process and a greater validity tothe recalled vocabulary. Since thus, the recalled items reflect the reality of language use incurrent Marathi, the list presented here will be found very useful for teaching and learningMarathi Vocabulary and also for the preparation of instruction materials

Arrangement and Presentation of Vocabulary Recalled

The arrangement and presentation of words under different subgroups are doneaccording to the Marathi alphabetical order. But the groups themselves are arranged andpresented on the basis of their labels following the English alphabet order for easyreference.

The vocabulary items are presented in this book in three columns. First columngives the words in Marathi in Devanagari script. The second presents them in Romantransliteration. The equivalents of Roman letters for individual Marathi letter are given inthe chart appended to this introduction. The third column gives the English gloss for eachentry. The gloss, however, does not indicate all the meanings of the given Marathi entrybut gives the most frequently used ones.

Nouns in Marathi language are Masculine, Feminine or Neuter. They aregrammatical genders. So the genders of the nouns are given after the entry of each noun. Itmay also be noted that like regular dictionaries, the entry of the verbs are given in verbalnoun form. whereas, the root form of the verb is (non-polite i.e. secondperson singular imperative form) Appropriate suffix for the verb is added to this root form of the verb.

Though the domains of color, size, shapes, qualities etc. come under the section ofNouns, there are some adjectives which semantically come under these domains. Hence,it is specifically mentioned after the entry if it is an adjective and whether it variesaccording to the gender and number. Similarly, some verbs also had to be included undersome domains in the section of Nouns. They are also specifically mentioned after theentry word.

This book is thus a supplementary material for the first/second language learnersof Marathi. It can also be innovatively used by material producers as an additional tool tochoose appropriate vocabulary for preparing different kinds of instructional and testingmaterials.

**Contents and Sample Pages**
Classified Recall Vocabulary in Marathi | Exotic India Art (1)

Classified Recall Vocabulary in Marathi | Exotic India Art (2)

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