Learn Marathi Barakahadi : Symbols for vowels with consonants (2023)

Learn Marathi Barakahadi : Symbols for vowels with consonants

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In previous lesson we have studied symbols in Devanagari script for consonants and vowels. Now lets learn next concept of Marathi Barakhadi.
Like in any language, vowels can be added to consonants to create combined sound.
In English we just right letters one after other; and based on the word pronunciation say them together.
e.g.
meat ; bit ; hat.
Here "ea","i","a" are pronounced along with preceding consonant.

In Marathi we do not write vowels as it is when they are to be combined with consonant. There are different symbols for each vowel, which is added to consonant symbol to indicate combined sound

There are twelve main vowels. Hence this chart is called "bArAkhaDI"; where "bArA" meanstwelve.

1) Addingअ(a) to consonant has no effect. So there is no change in symbol
In this blog it is denoted as small a i.e. "a"

2) Addingआ(A) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line.
e.g. This vertical line is calledकाना (kAnA )
क(k) + आ(A) =का (kA)
ब(b) + आ(A) =बा(bA)
In this blog it is denoted as capital a i.e. "A"

3) Addingइ(i) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line and a curve BEFORE consonant.
This "vertical line and a curve" is called asपहिली वेलांटी (pahilI velAMTI).
क(k) + इ(i) = कि(ki)
ब(b) + इ(i) = बि(bi)

In this blog it is denoted as small i i.e. "i"

4) Addingई(I) to consonant is denoted by extra vertical line and a curve AFTER consonant
This "vertical line and a curve" is called asदुसरी वेलांटी (dusarI velAMTI).
क(k) +ई(I) =की(kI)
ब(b) +(I)=बी(bI)
In this blog it is denoted as capital i i.e. "I"

5) Addingउ(u) to consonant is denoted by a curve below consonant. Curve is pointing to left

This curve is calledपहिला उकार (pahilA ukAr )

क(k) +उ(u)=कु(ku)
ब(b) +उ(u)=बु(bu)
Exception :- for र(r) curve is added at side रु(ru)
In this blog it is denoted as small u i.e. "u"

6) Addingऊ(U) to consonant is denoted by a curve below consonant. Curve is pointing to right.

This curve is calledदुसरा उकार (dusarA ukAr )

क(k) +ऊ(U)=कू(kU)
ब(b) +ऊ(U)=बू(bU)
Exception :- for र(r) curve is added at side रू(rU)
In this blog it is denoted as capital u i.e. "U"

7) Addingए(e) to consonant is denoted by a slanting line above consonant.

This slanting line is calledमात्रा(mAtrA)

क(k) +ए(e) =के(ke)

ब(b) +ए(e)=बे(be)

In this blog it is denoted as small e i.e. "e"

8) Addingऐ(ai) to consonant is denoted by a TWO slanting lines above consonant.

These slanting lines are calledदोन मात्रा(don mAtrA). Where दोन (don) means two.

क(k) +ऐ(ai) =कै(kai)

ब(b) +ऐ(ai)=बै(bai)
In this blog it is denoted as "ai"

Note for native Hindi speakers :- read the section "Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi" at the end of this lesson.

9) Addingओ(o) to consonant is denoted by a vertical line after consonant along with one slanting line above consonant. i.e. one काना (kAnA) and one मात्रा(mAtrA)

क(k) +ओ(o) =को(ko)

ब(b) +ओ(o)=बो(bo)

In this blog it is denoted as small o i.e. "o"

10) Addingऔ(au) to consonant is denoted by a vertical line after consonant along with TWO slanting lines above consonant. i.e. one काना (kAnA) and two मात्रा(mAtrA)

क(k) +औ(au) =कौ(kau)

ब(b) +औ(au)=बौ(bau)

In this blog it is denoted as "au"

Note for native Hindi speakers :-read the section "Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi" at the end of this blog

11) Addingअं(aM) to consonant is denoted by a giving a dot on consonant.

क(k) +अं(aM) =कं(kM)

ब(b) + अं(aM)=बं(bM)

In this blog it is denoted as capital m "M"
Fore more details onpronunciation of anusvar refer
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2012/05/pronunciation-of-anusvar.html

12) Addingअः(aH) to consonant is denoted by a two dots after consonant.

क(k) +अः(aH) =कः(kH)

ब(b) + अः(aH)=बः(bH)

In this blog it is denoted as capital h i.e. "H"

Traditional "barakahdi" ends above. But there are few more vowels which can be added with consonant they are as follows :-

13) Addingअ‍ॅ(~a) to consonant is denoted by giving a crescent above consonant.

क(k) +अ‍ॅ(~a) =कॅ(k~a)

ब(b) + अ‍ॅ(~a)=बॅ(b~a)

In this blog it is denoted as "~a"

14) Addingऑ(~0) to consonant is denoted by giving a crescent above consonant along with vertical line after consonant.

क(k) +ऑ(~o) =कॉ(k~o)

ब(b) + ऑ(~o)=बॉ(b~o)

In this blog it is denoted as "~o"
15) When you want to say a consonant just half it is denoted by giving a slanting line below consonant
क्‌
ब्‌


Listen this lesson online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1ePGpObol0

To learn the pronunciation of Marathi Barakhadi, watch above video.


Difference in pronunciation of double Matra in Marathi and Hindi
Pronunciation of double Matra in Hindi is equal to that of crescent in Marathi.
e.g.

English Word

Written in Hindi as

Written in Marathi as

Stock

स्टौक (sTauk )

स्टॉक (sT~ok )

Block

ब्लौक (blauk )

ब्लॉक (bl~ok )

Rock

रौक (rauk )

रॉक (r~ok )

Mat

मैट (maiT )

मॅट (m~aT )

Bat

बैट (baiT )

बॅट (b~aT )

Rat

रैट (raiT )

रॅट (r~aT )


Listen about this difference at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_qtbx_tfxs


or
https://soundcloud.com/kaushik-lele/double-matra-pronunciation-learn-marathi


List of symbols for all consonants with vowel following above rules:-
You can listen them all at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztW4T4R3SDw



क का कि की कु कू के कै को कौ कं कः कॅ कॉ क्‌
ख खा खि खी खु खू खे खै खो खौ खं खः खॅ खॉ ख्‌
ग गा गि गी गु गू गे गै गो गौ गं गः गॅ गॉ ग्‌
घ घा घि घी घु घू घे घै घो घौ घं घः घॅ घॉ घ्‌
च चा चि ची चु चू चे चै चो चौ चं चः चॅ चॉ च्‌
छ छा छि छी छु छू छे छै छो छौ छं छः छॅ छॉ छ्‌
ज जा जि जी जु जू जे जै जो जौ जं जः जॅ जॉ ज्‌
झ झा झि झी झु झू झे झै झो झौ झं झः झॅ झॉ झ्‌
ट टा टि टी टु टू टे टै टो टौ टं टः टॅ टॉ ट्‌
ठ ठा ठि ठी ठु ठू ठे ठै ठो ठौ ठं ठः ठॅ ठॉ ठ्‌
ड डा डि डी डु डू डे डै डो डौ डं डः डॅ डॉ ड्‌
ढ ढा ढि ढी ढु ढू ढे ढै ढो ढौ ढं ढः ढॅ ढॉ ढ्‌
ण णा णि णी णु णू णे णै णो णौ णं णः णॅ णॉ ण्‌
त ता ति ती तु तू ते तै तो तौ तं तः तॅ तॉ त्‌
थ था थि थी थु थू थे थै थो थौ थं थः थॅ थॉ थ्‌
द दा दि दी दु दू दे दै दो दौ दं दः दॅ दॉ द्‌
ध धा धि धी धु धू धे धै धो धौ धं धः धॅ धॉ ध्‌
न ना नि नी नु नू ने नै नो नौ नं नः नॅ नॉ न्‌
प पा पि पी पु पू पे पै पो पौ पं पः पॅ पॉ प्‌
फ फा फि फी फु फू फे फै फो फौ फं फः फॅ फॉ फ्‌
ब बा बि बी बु बू बे बै बो बौ बं बः बॅ बॉ ब्‌
भ भा भि भी भु भू भे भै भो भौ भं भः भॅ भॉ भ्‌
म मा मि मी मु मू मे मै मो मौ मं मः मॅ मॉ म्‌
य या यि यी यु यू ये यै यो यौ यं यः यॅ यॉ य्‌
र रा रि री रु रू रे रै रो रौ रं रः रॅ रॉ र्‌
ल ला लि ली लु लू ले लै लो लौ लं लः लॅ लॉ ल्‌
व वा वि वी वु वू वे वै वो वौ वं वः वॅ वॉ व्‌
श शा शि शी शु शू शे शै शो शौ शं शः शॅ शॉ श्‌
ष षा षि षी षु षू षे षै षो षौ षं षः षॅ षॉ ष्‌
स सा सि सी सु सू से सै सो सौ सं सः सॅ सॉ स्‌
ह हा हि ही हु हू हे है हो हौ हं हः हॅ हॉ ह्‌
ळ ळा ळि ळी ळु ळू ळे ळै ळो ळौ ळं ळः ळॅ ळॉ ळ्‌
क्ष क्षा क्षि क्षी क्षु क्षू क्षे क्षै क्षो क्षौ क्षं क्षः क्षॅ क्षॉ क्ष्‌
ज्ञ ज्ञा ज्ञि ज्ञी ज्ञु ज्ञू ज्ञे ज्ञै ज्ञो ज्ञौ ज्ञं ज्ञः ज्ञॅ ज्ञॉ ज्ञ्‌

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