Things Found At The Bottom Of The Black Sea - Grunge (2023)

Things Found At The Bottom Of The Black Sea - Grunge (1)

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ByMichele Gama Sosa/Updated: Jan. 31, 2023 1:54 pm EST

Robert Ballard, who found fame for discovering the Titanic, called the Black Sea a "magical place" in an interview with the BBC. Even in antiquity, the sea had this reputation. According to Livius, the Romans called it Pontus Euxinus, a euphemistic change to the original Greek name Pontos Auxenos (via Greece & Rome). Its rocky coasts were steeped in mystery and legend, inhabited by warlike tribes with a dislike for Greek outsiders seeking to colonize its shores⁠— so the tales went.

Today, the Black Sea is known for being one of the best-preserved sailors' graveyards, where over 60 well-preserved shipwrecks have been discovered that shed light on the sea's history from classical times to the present. But the Black Sea is also a connector, and the nations that control its shores rely on it for telecommunications, gas, and commerce.

Anoxic water

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According to the University of Washington, the Black Sea is a heavily-stratified water body with three different layers of water that do not mix. This is in part due to its past history as a freshwater lake and its supply of salinated water. As the university notes, the Black Sea receives its water from two main sources. From the Bosphorus Plume, the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean, and eventually the Mediterranean, it receives a supply of salinated water. But it also receives a supply of fresh water from the numerous rivers that pass through Eastern Europe, such as the Dniester, the Danube, and the Dnieper.

The higher density of salt water creates a stratification in the Black Sea that keeps the layers from mixing. The top layer is less-salinated and well-oxygenated and supports a host of life forms. The bottom layer is anoxic, meaning that it contains little to no dissolved oxygen and is instead rich in hydrogen sulfide, making it inhospitable to most life forms. In between is what is known as a suboxic layer with little oxygen or hydrogen sulfide. This makes the Black Sea an interesting case study because its anoxic layers are believed to represent earth's inhospitable ancient oceans, which became more hospitable to oxygen-breathing life as the planet's atmospheric oxygen increased. The lack of oxygen is also believed to make the Black Sea a great preserver of organic matter such as shipwrecks.

Anaerobic bacteria

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The toxicity of the Black Sea's suboxic and anoxic layersis the result of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria (via theUniversity of Wagingen). This chemical is a toxic gas that can cause asphyxiation if inhaled— at least for humans and other mammalian life forms. But there are smaller life forms that have evolved to thrive in this toxic environment that use hydrogen sulfide as part of their food source.

According to a short study published in PNAS, researchers took a sample of suboxic water from the Black Sea where the suboxic and anoxic layers meet. The samples were then dosed with hydrogen sulfide or thiosulfate, a less-toxic sulfate that was safer to use in the lab. After some time observing, the researchers noted that an autotrophic bacterial colony had grown in this otherwise-inhospitable cocktail. They dubbed the bacteria "Sulfurimonas marisnigri," and it seemed to love the sulfurous environment because it could use hydrogen sulfide for food synthesis. The reaction oxidizes hydrogen sulfide with manganese oxide and produces sulfate. In this regard, the different types of bacteria are in symbiosis. The hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria create the environment that allows other species— such as Sulfurimonas marisnigri — to thrive.

The world's oldest known shipwreck

As noted by the University of Washington, the anoxic environment of the Black Sea's deepest layers seem to preserve organic matter very well. The precise reasons are still debated, but there is no doubt that the Black Sea has a much larger number of well-preserved shipwrecks than most places— including the oldest known one. In 2018, the BBC reported that an Anglo-Bulgarian team had discovered a 2,400-year-old classical Greek shipwreck off the coast near the Bulgarian city of Burgas. While the archaeologists assumed it was a trade ship, most of the cargo was not immediately accessible because it was inside the ship's hold.

While the exploration of the ship itself was put on hold for lack of funding, there are some clues from Greek vase paintings that give an idea of the ship's mission. A vase from around 500 B.C. depicts the Mycenaean Greek hero Odysseus being tied to the mast of his ship so he can listen to the song of the tempting Sirens without jumping to his death on their jagged rocks from his desire to be with the seductresses. Per the researchers, the ship on the vase is similar to a wreck found in the Black Sea, suggesting that the disaster dates to at least 500 B.C. Its purpose? Given where it was found and the presence of Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast, it was a trade ship that conducted long-distance commercial voyages between the colonies, the Aegean, and the Mediterranean. But only an exploration of the ship's hull contents can confirm this with certainty.

A submerged town

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According to Bulgaria's Center for Underwater Archaeology, the resort town of Nessebar has a storied history as much more than a vacation spot. According to Unesco, the town traces its roots back to a Bronze Age Thracian settlement called Menebria that eventually became the Greek city of Mesembria. It went back and forth between Bulgarian and Byzantine rule before eventually becoming part of the Ottoman Empire and then Bulgaria, where it remains today. The city is interesting not only because it contains over 3,000 years of civilization in layers built one on top of the other but also because one-third of the city— including some of its grandest sights— is underwater.

According to the various excavators, Nessebar was vulnerable to erosion, landslides, and earthquakes that resulted in flooding when accompanied by rising sea levels. Part of this, however, was actually the fault of the builders. The city was in part built on unstable sandstone that the Black Sea gradually eroded away, sinking whatever was built on top of it. And they were not small structures either— Bulgarian archaeologists have found the remains of a theater, a temple to the Greek pantheon's royal couple Zeus and Hera, and even an early Christian basilica.

A Neolithic village

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The story of Noah's Ark has led researchers to try and find the truth about the tale. According to the Smithsonian, many extra-biblical cultures have some form of the tale, so archaeologists and Bible enthusiasts alike have concluded that it must be based on a true event. Notably, Columbia University geologists William Ryan and Walter Pittman have suggested that the Black Sea lies at the center of Noah's story. Until around 7,000 years ago, the Black Sea was a smaller freshwater lake with thriving Neolithic communities on its shores. According to MIT, one of these possible sites was found submerged— although details are still scant. But as the Mediterranean Sea rose and expanded, it eventually flooded through the Bosphorus and turned the lake into what is now known as the Black Sea.

Ryan and Pitman hypothesize that the violent creation of the Black Sea had some important consequences— namely, sending the coastal inhabitants fleeing for higher ground. One of the consequences may have been the dispersal of Indo-European languages, which linguists believe originated in Southern Russia and Ukraine. While the Ryan-Pittman theory is interesting, it is far from settled. Bulgarian archaeologist Zdravka Georgieva argues that the Black Sea was not the result of a violent flood but rather of gradually-rising sea levels (via the BBC). This story is certainly not as exciting as the Genesis tale, but according to Georgieva, it's more likely given the oceanographic data.

Natural gas

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Concerns over natural gas dominated the headlines in 2022 as Europe and Russia battled it out over gas supplies from the Nord Stream 2 pipeline amid sanctions on the latter over the war in Ukraine (via theBBC). But can the Black Sea provide an alternative supply that would allow NATO and EU countries to skirt Russian gas? According to the Atlantic Council, the answer is a resounding yes. The Black Sea coast contains trillions of cubic centimeters of natural gas that could not only offset Russian gas supplies but also help these countries develop their own energy sectors. One of these, according to Forbes, was confirmed in 2020 when Turkish prospectors found 320 billion cubic centimeters of gas off the country's northern coast.

According to the journal Offshore Energy, the Turkish government has been most active in exploring the gas fields. In February of 2022, Turkey conducted flow tests to ensure extraction to the mainland was possible at a reasonable cost. Tapping the gas supplies off the coast of Romania has been a little more difficult. According to Reuters, Romania imposes heavy taxes on gas production that disincentivizes companies from operating there to their fullest extent. In May 2022, however, Romania eased its taxes to encourage greater exploration after Reuters reported that Romanian gas company Petrom discovered up to 3 trillion cubic centimeters in an area called the Neptun block. Both countries are staking their hopes that this gas will help meet domestic needs while providing a valuable export to generate extra revenue in the European market.

The Blue Stream Pipeline

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In 2022, Russia did not sit idle while NATO and its allies explored the possibility of Black Sea gas. Instead, built its own pipelines in response to the geopolitical situation. According to Hydrocarbons Technology, Russia, Turkey, Gazprom, and the Italian energy company Eni embarked on a joint venture to build the Blue Stream pipeline under the Black Sea from Beregovaya on the Eastern Black Sea coast to Durusu in Turkey and then on to Europe.This pipeline was supposed to travel through the Eastern European countries of Moldova, Ukraine, Bulgaria, and Romania, but because of poor Russian relations with these countries, the pipeline was routed to Turkey instead.

According to Russia's foreign ministry, the pipeline is quite a marvel of engineering. Built in 1997 with funding from Italian, Russian, Japanese, and British investors, it originates in Russia at the foothills of the Caucasus, where the pipeline traverses steep, mountainous terrain. Once it hits the Black Sea, it runs along the bottom for nearly 400 kilometers to Turkey, where the gas arrives at the Durusu measuring station near the city of Samsun. During this leg, the pipeline— which is the deepest in the world— reaches depths of 2.2 kilometers (approximately 1.5 miles). From there, it connects to the Samsun-Ankara pipeline, which transports the gas another 444 km to the Turkish capital, whence it can be exported to Europe or used for domestic energy needs.

An underwater river

Returning to the scientific perspective, the Black Sea, as mentioned earlier, is a heavily-stratified ocean. As the University of Washington noted, it is more or less divided into three layers, with the most salinated layers farther down thanks to the higher density of salt water. Some of this denser water, which also contains sediment, has created the interesting phenomenon of an undersea river within the sea itself.

According to the University of Leeds, the Black Sea receives its salinated input from the Mediterranean and Aegean seas. This water enters the Bosphorus and then the Black Sea, "hugging" the seabed. Over time, these currents have carved out channels on the seabed through which the water flows like a river and appears as such on digital elevation models. So far, undersea rivers are not well-understood— despite the fact that there are probably many of them on the ocean floor. But the Black Sea-Bosphorus exemplar is the first one that has been studied in detail, revealing yet another phenomenon that until then had only been studied in laboratory experiments.

The Moskva

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The Russian cruiser and flagship Moskva went to the bottom of the Black Sea in April. Initially, it was unclear what had caused it. According to Turkish outlet TRT World—which reported that Turkish vessels rescued some of the sailors— it sank in a storm. According toAl Arabiya, Russia claimed it sank thanks to an ammunition fire, while Ukraine and the Pentagon claimed Ukraine had struck it with Neptune missiles.

Ukraine celebrated the sinking of the flagship and thumbed its nose at Russia by declaring the sunken area underwater national heritage, as reported in the French outlet BFMTV. Meanwhile, Russia declared its intention to salvage the wreckage, therefore denying Ukraine any gloating rights over the pride of the Russian Black Sea Fleet (per The Jerusalem Post). Among the pieces of wreckage that Russia hoped to salvage was a relic of the True Cross that was on board (aka the cross Jesus died on). The operation is ongoing.

The sinking of the Moskva proved controversial because of possible NATO involvement. According to Al-Jazeera, the Pentagon denied any involvement in the sinking of the Moskva but did admit to feeding Ukraine intelligence on the locations of Russian ships. The next day, however, it turned out that the United States had given Ukraine information of the Moskva's whereabouts— it just had not expected Ukraine to take action against the ship.

Naval mines

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These are not necessarily found at the bottom of the Black Sea but have unfortunately become a feature of the area thanks to the escalating conflict between NATO and Russia over Ukraine. According to the Naval History and Heritage Command, naval mines are explosive devices that are placed just below the surface or on the seafloor. They can move freely with the current, be tethered, or be fixed.They work much the same way as anti-personal and anti-tank mines — but are intended to blow up ships and submarines rather than people or tanks. Whenever a ship or sub hits a mine, the mine explodes and ideally sinks or at least cripples the vessel.

Mines are often used to protect coastal waters or the entrances to harbors from enemy vessels. The problem, as with land mines, is that undetonated mines must be removed, usually at great cost. Otherwise, they pose a danger to neutral shipping and noncombatants that operate in mined waters.AsDWnotes, Russia andUkraine have traded accusations over the presence of free-floating mines in the Black Sea, some of which have drifted far from the northern coast.Turkey has had to neutralize at least one that drifted into the crowded Bosphorus, shutting down the only outlet for Black Sea shipping to the rest of the world and posing a threat to civilian ships that navigate the waterway on a daily basis.

Internet cables

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As the Atlantic Council argued, the Black Sea and its natural gas resources could be what brings the various NATO-aligned countries into closer cooperation in the face of an expanding Russian sphere. Meanwhile, countries such as Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, and Georgia have also worked together to turn the Black Sea region into a telecommunications hub through a network of fiber-optic undersea cables.

According to Georgia's Business Media, one of the latest projects would lay nearly 1200 kilometers of fiber optic cable between Georgia and Romania. The cable terminals are still unknown, but the cable would run on the seabed and turn Georgia into an internet intermediary between Europe on one hand and the Caucasus and Asia on the other. Meanwhile,Turk Telecom, Turkey's telecommunications firm, laid a 504-kilometer-long cable between the Romanian capital Bucharest and Istanbul, with the same goal of turning Turkey into a telecommunications hub and bridge between Europe and Asia.

The Caucasus has the most to gain from the project. While the region has moved closer to Europe economically, investment and infrastructure outside of Russian orbit have been sometimes lacking. The Georgian government, as cited in Business Media, hoped that these undersea cables would convince global telecommunications companies operating in Istanbul and across Turkey to invest in the telecom infrastructure of the Caucasus as well. The United States also backed the initiative as a means of bypassing Russian internet and linking the Caucasus directly to NATO.

Three German u-boats

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According to Turkish newspaper Daily Sabah, Turkish naval vessels discovered three German U-boats north of Istanbul. As it turned out, they were part of a fleet of six that had entered the Black Sea as part of Germany's World War II effort during Operation Barbarossa. During the Second World War, Turkey remained neutral and closed the Bosphorus to military vessels. Germany had hoped to convince Turkey, however, to open the straits up to German military traffic to support Axis forces operating against the USSR on the Eastern Front.

The Turks refused, so the Germans had to disassemble the submarines and ferry them at great cost and effort to the Romanian port of Constanta, where they were put to sea after being rebuilt. The remaining three arrived in Istanbul, but once again, the Turkish government refused to let them through. So the Germans scuttled the subs while the crews were imprisoned in Turkey until after the war ended. It seems that the subs that did make it had no impact on the war, and the Germans and their allies were pushed out of the USSR by 1944.


Were human remains found at the bottom of the Black Sea? ›

A National Geographic expedition led by Robert Ballard aboard the Northern Horizon has discovered remnants of human habitation more than 300 feet below the surface of the Black Sea, approximately 12 miles off the Turkish shore.

What did Ballard discover in the Black Sea? ›

A National Geographic expedition to the Black Sea led by Explorer-in-Residence Robert Ballard discovered four ancient shipwrecks, one almost perfectly preserved with its wooden mast and stanchions still standing about 1,000 feet (300 meters) below the sea.

What is the dead spot in the Black Sea? ›

Natural Dead Zones

The largest dead zone in the world, the lower portion of the Black Sea, occurs naturally. Oxygenated water is only found in the upper portion of the sea, where the Black Sea's waters mix with the Mediterranean Sea that flows through the shallow Bosporus strait.

What is unusual about the Black Sea? ›

The Black Sea is one of the most isolated from the world's oceans. As the Black Sea is connected by a very narrow strait of the Bosphorus near Istanbul with the salty Marmara Sea and then the Mediterranean Sea, it is said to be the largest indoor water basin in the world.

Why is the bottom of the Black Sea toxic? ›

One should remember that water layers lower than 150 metres of the Black sea contain 92 per cent of hydrogen sulphide, a toxic and poisonous gas. The sea is connected to the ocean only by the Turkish Straits system.

What treasures have been found in the Black Sea? ›

Archaeologists have uncovered treasure buried by the desperate citizens of a town under siege by the Roman army some 2,000 years ago. Hundreds of bronze coins, and various items of gold, silver and bronze jewellery were found beneath an ancient fortress in the Crimean settlement of Artezia, in modern day Ukraine.

What is the oldest shipwreck found in the bottom of Black Sea? ›

A Greek merchant ship discovered more than a mile under the surface of the Black Sea has been radiocarbon dated to 2,400 years ago, making it the world's oldest known intact shipwreck.

Why is finding wood at the bottom of the Black Sea a significant discovery? ›

The discovery supports the theory that the seabed was once populated with a prehistoric farming community who had to flee the rising waters, which could have prompted stories of a giant flood.

Why does the Black Sea preserved shipwrecks? ›

Due to very low levels of oxygen at shallow depths, Black Sea shipwrecks are well preserved when compared to other Mediterranean wrecks from the same time period.

What is lacking at the bottom of the Black Sea? ›

A notable feature of the Black Sea is that oxygen is dissolved (and rich sea life is made possible) only in the upper water levels. Below a depth of about 230 to 330 feet (70 to 100 metres) at the sea's centre and 330 to 500 feet (100 to 150 metres) near its edge, there is no oxygen.

Why there is no life to the bottom of Black Sea? ›

The Black Sea has a depth of over 150 meters, and its waters are filled with hydrogen sulfide for almost two kilometers. Therefore, in the deepest layers of its water there are no living things except sulfur bacteria.

Why did the dead zone in the Black Sea disappear? ›

The Black Sea experienced unprecedented degradation in the 1990s when widespread nutrient loading caused a large dead zone. The main sources of nutrients were runoff from the agricultural sector (fertilizers and livestock waste) as well as domestic and industrial wastes.

Is it safe to swim in the Black Sea? ›

However, the Black Sea is COMPLETELY SAFE to swim in and is a popular summer destination for many looking for refuge from the heat. The Black Sea has a unique feature, which might make people believe it is not swimmable. The Black Sea is anoxic, meaning there is only a small amount of dissolved oxygen in the water.

What is the folklore of the Black Sea? ›

The Greeks believe in the story that the sea, back then considered part of an Ocean, was the entrance to the kingdom of the dead. This is why they called the Black Sea 'Inhospitable Sea'. Travelers' stories shared legends about the Inhospitable Sea, which mercilessly smashed and drowned ships.

Why is the Black Sea so valuable? ›

The Black Sea gives access to key regions where there are important security challenges (Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya) and significant energy resources (the Middle East, the Caspian Sea, and North Africa). Turkey is NATO's most important Black Sea actor. Ankara sees itself as a bridge for trade between Asia and Europe.

Why does the Black Sea smell? ›

Summary: The Black Sea harbors vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide, the toxic gas associated with the smell of rotten eggs.

Which ocean is the most toxic? ›

Scientists have discovered “extraordinary” levels of toxic pollution in the most remote and inaccessible place on the planet – the 10km deep Mariana trench in the Pacific Ocean.

Is the Black Sea violent? ›

What Parents Need to Know. Parents need to know that Black Sea is a tense, frequently violent submarine thriller starring Jude Law.

What is the most valuable treasure lost at sea? ›

The San Jose – The Holy Grail of Sunken Treasures (1708) – $17 billion. One of the most precious shipwrecks in the world, the site of which remained unknown for over three centuries, was revealed in photographs by the Colombian army.

What is the most valuable treasure ever found at sea? ›

5 most valuable treasures lying on the ocean floor
  • Treasure of Caesarea: an inestimable jewel.
  • RMS Republic: 7 billion dollars.
  • Sinking of the Salcombe: 800 million dollars.
  • Nuestra Señora de Atocha: 400 million dollars.
  • Titanic: 200 million dollars.
Nov 23, 2022

What is the most valuable pirate treasure ever found? ›

Called the “holy grail of shipwrecks,” the Spanish galleon San José was carrying a treasure of silver, gold, and emeralds worth billions of dollars today. The galleon sunk after a battle with British ships off the coast of Cartagena, Colombia, in 1708.

What is the deadliest shipwreck of all time? ›

The wartime sinking of the German Wilhelm Gustloff in January 1945 in World War II by a Soviet Navy submarine, with an estimated loss of about 9,400 people, remains the deadliest isolated maritime disaster ever, excluding such events as the destruction of entire fleets like the 1274 and 1281 storms that are said to ...

What was history's deadliest shipwreck? ›

1. The Wilhelm Gustloff (1945): The deadliest shipwreck in history. On January 30, 1945, some 9,000 people perished aboard this German ocean liner after it was torpedoed by a Soviet submarine and sank in the frigid waters of the Baltic Sea.

What is the deepest shipwreck in history? ›

It is just over a year since the WWII destroyer USS Johnston was confirmed to be the world's deepest shipwreck, found lying on the seabed 6,468.6 m (21,222 ft) below the surface.

What is the oldest shipwreck ever found? ›

The Extremely Ancient Dokos Shipwreck

Among them, the Dokos wreck is thought to be the oldest shipwreck found to date. It dates before c. 2200 BCE, judging by the pottery cargo it carried. It was discovered by Peter in 1975 at a depth of fifteen to thirty meters near the Greek island of Dokos.

Was a Roman ship found in the Black Sea? ›

In 2018, a Roman trading vessel which dates back to 2nd–3rd centuries AD was found near Balaklava, Crimean Peninsula.

How deep is the Black Sea? ›

Black Sea, Sea between Europe and Asia. Bordered by Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, and Romania, it has a maximum depth of 7,250 ft (2,210 m). The Black Sea proper has an area of 163,000 sq mi (422,000 sq km).

How many ships are stuck in the Black Sea? ›

For the last year, since the start of the war with Russia, 331 seafarers and 61 ships have been trapped in Ukrainian ports in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, and calls for their expedited release are intensifying.

What happens to human remains in shipwrecks? ›

Putrefaction and scavenging creatures will dismember the corpse in a week or two and the bones will sink to the seabed. There they may be slowly buried by marine silt or broken down further over months or years, depending on the acidity of the water.

How many ships trapped in Black Sea? ›

About 2,000 seafarers in 112 ships were berthed in Ukrainian ports across the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov before Russia's invasion.

Are there monsters in the Black Sea? ›

Most marine animals and plants cannot survive here. For example, there are no corals (but see below), no octopuses and squids; no seastars, and no sea urchins living in these waters. On the other hand, there are very few dangerous marine creatures in the Black Sea—no deadly jellyfish or stinging sea anemones.

Is the Black Sea drying up? ›

By compiling the data gathered over the past 60 years, he noted that the oxygen-rich top layer of the Black Sea had shrunk from 140 metres to 90 metres deep. Impressive figures that correspond to a more than 40 % decrease in the habitable volume.

Are there sharks in Black Sea? ›

Several species of shark live in the Black Sea, including the spiny dogfish, smooth hammerhead, angelshark, and the common thresher shark. These sharks are all declining in population due to fishing in this area. They are usually not the target species but are often caught accidentally.

What creatures live in the Black Sea? ›

Bears, wolves and lynx inhabit the old growth forests. In the Black Sea, one still finds bottlenose dolphins and about 180 species of fish, including tuna, anchovy, herring, mackerel and the famous white sturgeon. Monk seals, sadly, have become extinct here.

Is the Black Sea totally landlocked? ›

The Black Sea separates Europe from Asia. It is almost entirely landlocked (surrounded by land), but is connected to the Mediterranean Sea. The bottom of the Black Sea is very salty and the water is cold. It also has almost no oxygen because the bottom is full of bacteria that has used it all.

Does the Black Sea have an outlet? ›

The Black Sea is a major body of water that has only one outlet, the Bosporus Strait. The Bosporus, an approximately 30 km (20 mi) long waterway, connects the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Sea (via the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles Strait).

What is the largest dead zone in the United States? ›

The Gulf of Mexico dead zone is one of the largest in the world.

Can a dead zone recover? ›

Fortunately, dead zones are reversible if their causes are reduced or eliminated.

What year will the Dead Sea disappear? ›

It is the saltiest sea on earth. Some experts believe it will be gone by 2050, while others say it will never fully disappear but survive at a fraction of its current size.

Who owns the Black Sea? ›

On paper, all six littoral states share the Black Sea militarily. Yet four of them (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, and Ukraine) have relatively small navies, making the sea a de facto maritime condominium between Turkey and Russia.

Why did they call it the Black Sea? ›

The name 'Black Sea' is widely attributed to the Anatolian Turks, due to their habit of referring to the South as 'white' and North as 'black'. However, the appellation first appeared in a Hungarian document and later in sources originating further to the North, including Icelandic sagas and other Nordic narratives.

Is the Black Sea freshwater or saltwater? ›

The Black Sea is a saltwater sea, but it is of lesser salinity than the oceans. The salinity of the Black Sea's surface waters averages between 17 and 18 parts per thousand, which is approximately half that of the oceans.

Who was the god of the Black Sea? ›

Theos Hypsistos known as The Supreme God has attracted attention as a cult since the time of the first researches until now.

What religion was the Black Sea? ›

There was Buddhism and Christianity in the opposite of Islam among the Turks in this period. Various tribes such as Kipchak, Pechenek, Mongol, Russian, Khazar were settled in the North of the Black Sea, other than Muslim cultures.

What is the Black Sea kids? ›

The Black Sea is located where Europe and Asia meet. It is bordered by Ukraine to the north, Russia to the northeast, Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Several great rivers empty into the Black Sea. These include the Danube, Dniester, Bug, Dnieper, Don, and Kuban.

Are there any US ships in the Black Sea? ›

Since the closure, only warships with ports on the Black Sea, which includes Russia's Black Sea Fleet and Turkish ships, can enter. The last American warship to transit the strait was USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51), which left the Black Sea on Dec. 15, 2021.

What is the Black Sea controversy? ›

The 2021 Black Sea incident was a diplomatic incident between Russia and the United Kingdom involving the British destroyer HMS Defender while it transited from Odesa, Ukraine, to Batumi, Georgia.

What country controls the Black Sea? ›

Turkey has tremendous influence over the Black Sea since it controls two straits, the Dardanelles and the Bosporus, which ships must pass through to transit between the Black Sea and other global waterways.

What is important about the finding human remains were found at the bottom of the Black Sea? ›

Remains found at bottom of the Black Sea indicate that Noah's Flood was real.

What happens to human remains at the bottom of the ocean? ›

Putrefaction and scavenging creatures will dismember the corpse in a week or two and the bones will sink to the seabed. There they may be slowly buried by marine silt or broken down further over months or years, depending on the acidity of the water.

Where were the remains of humans found? ›

Some of the oldest human remains ever unearthed are the Omo One bones found in Ethiopia. For decades, their precise age has been debated, but a new study argues they're around 233,000 years old.

What part of Africa were the oldest human remains found? ›

On November 24, 1974, fossils of one of the oldest known human ancestors, an Australopithecus afarensis specimen nicknamed “Lucy,” were discovered in Hadar, Ethiopia.

What was the name of the most complete human skeleton found in Africa? ›

The fossil locality at Hadar where the pieces of Lucy's skeleton were discovered is known to scientists as Afar Locality 288 (A.L. 288). Johanson and the rest of the 1974 field team collected every fossil fragment they could find at A.L. 288.

Where is the oldest human remains in the US found and how old is it? ›

The Spirit Cave mummy is the oldest human mummy found in North America. It was discovered in 1940 in Spirit Cave, 13 miles (21 km) east of Fallon, Nevada, United States, by the husband-and-wife archaeological team of Sydney and Georgia Wheeler. He was said to be forty years old when he died.

When looking at shipwrecks artifacts in the Black Sea Why are they preserved so incredibly well? ›

Due to very low oxygen levels in the Black Sea, artifacts are often better preserved there than those found in other parts of the ocean or on land. These preserved artifacts include objects like wood, fabric, and bone, which are often easily decomposed, or broken down, especially in the upper layers of the ocean.

Has any human touched the bottom of the ocean? ›

Thousands have climbed Mount Everest, and a handful of people have walked on the moon. But reaching the lowest part of the ocean? Only three people have ever done that, and one was a U.S. Navy submariner.

Why can't we go to the bottom of the ocean? ›

The intense pressures in the deep ocean make it an extremely difficult environment to explore.” Although you don't notice it, the pressure of the air pushing down on your body at sea level is about 15 pounds per square inch. If you went up into space, above the Earth's atmosphere, the pressure would decrease to zero.

Do bodies decompose at the bottom of the ocean? ›

The typical decomposition changes proceed more slowly in the water, primarily due to cooler temperatures and the anaerobic environment. However, once a body is removed from the water, putrefaction will likely be accelerated.

What was the largest human remains ever found? ›

The largest human skeleton ever found was 25 1/2 feet long with a width of 10 feet from the left to the right shoulder, and a depth of 5 feet when measured from the back to the breastbone.

Where are the remains of Adam and Eve? ›

The cave of Machpelah, in the West Bank city of Hebron, is the burial place of the Matriarchs and Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Sarah, Rebecca, and Leah. According to Jewish mystical tradition, it's also the entrance to the Garden of Eden where Adam and Eve are buried.

What is the oldest human body found? ›

Cheddar Man lived around 10,000 years ago and is the oldest almost complete skeleton of our species, Homo sapiens, ever found in Britain. Research into ancient DNA extracted from the skeleton has helped scientists to build a portrait of Cheddar Man and his life in Mesolithic Britain.

Where was the 1st oldest human remains ever found? ›

Until the latest findings from Jebel Irhoud, the oldest known remnants of our species were found at Omo Kibish in Ethiopia and dated to 195,000 years old. Other fossils and genetic evidence all point to an African origin for modern humans.

How old are the oldest non African human remains? ›

Researchers have found the earliest example of our species (modern humans) outside Africa. A skull unearthed in Greece has been dated to 210,000 years ago, at a time when Europe was occupied by the Neanderthals.

What was the first human like remains found in Africa around 3 million years ago? ›

The extinct ancient human Homo erectus is a species of firsts. It was the first of our relatives to have human-like body proportions, with shorter arms and longer legs relative to its torso. It was also the first known hominin to migrate out of Africa, and possibly the first to cook food.

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